Networking Interview Questions And Answers (2022)

Define Networking?
Networking is defined as two or more computer systems linked together to share resources. Networking, also known as computer networking. Computer networking enables devices and endpoints to be connected to each other on a local area network (LAN) or to a larger network, such as the internet or a private wide area network (WAN).
What is Data Communication?
Data communication is the exchange of data between two devices using some form of transmission medium. The data is in the form of a digital bitstream or a digitized analog signal over a point-to-point or point-to-multipoint communication channel.
Define Signals with types?
Data is transferred from one place to another in the form of signals.
There are three types of signals.
1. Digital Signal
2. Analog Signal
3. Hybrid Signal.
What is Digital Signal?
In Digital signal, data is represents a sequence of discrete values. It is transmitted in the electronic form i.e binary (0 or 1). The digital signals represent in the form of square waves. Digital electronic devices like computers, smartphones, smartwatches, etc. use these signals

What is Analog Signal?
Analog signals are continuous signals. In this, the data is transmitted in the form of radio waves like in telephone line. The sound from a human voice or any natural sound is analog, because sound waves are continuous.
What are the types of Communication Channel?
There are three types of communication channel
1.Simplex Channel
2.Half Duplex Channel
3.Full Duplex Channel
Define full-duplex channel?
The term full-duplex describes simultaneous data transmission and receptions over one channel. In this channel, the flow of data is in both directions at a time i.e. both stations can transmit and receive information simultaneously.
Define Ethernet Cable?
Ethernet Cable are two identical wires wrapped together and twisted around each other. Ethernet cable is also called Twisted Pair Cable. Ethernet connection uses ethernet cable to connect devices to the network or the Internet.
Define Coaxial Cable.
Coaxial cable consists of a core wire surrounded by foil shields or conducting braid or wire mesh, each separated by some induction. Coaxial cable is commonly used in transporting multi channel television signals in cities.
What are the advantages of Coaxial Cable?
These are the advantages of Coaxial Cable -
1. Transmission quality of coaxial cable is better than twisted pair cable
2. Can be successfully used for shared cable network.
3. Can transmit several channels simultaneously, so can be used for broadband transmission.

Define Optical Fibre with their parts?
Optical fibre consists of thin threads made up of very high purity silica (glass) or glass like material, which is capable of carrying light signals from a source at one end to another end.
There are three main parts of Optical Fibre -
1. Core
2. Cladding
3. Protective Coating
Give some examples of Wireless Media.
1. Bluetooth
2. Infrared
3. Microwave
4. Radiowave
5. Satellite communications
Where infrared is used?
Infrared is used in TV Remote, wireless speakers, remote control, garage doors transmission to send data. The power consumption and circuitry cost are very less in infrared.
What are the disadvantages of Infrared?
These are the disadvantages of Infrared -
1. Line of sight, need to be in a straight line for communication.
2. Limited to a short range.
3. Can be blocked by common materials like walls, people, plants etc
Define Microwave with advantages?
Microwave are electromagnetic waves having frequency range from 0.3 - 3GHz. It supports larger bandwidth and hence more information is transmitted. Using this, communication is possible even in difficult terrains.
Define radio waves with its setup parts?
When two terminals are connected using radio frequencies, then such type of communication is known as radio wave transmission. These parts are used to setup radio wave transmission -
1. Trasmitter - devices which transmits signals.
2. Receiver - Devices which receive signals.

How satellite communication works?
A satellite communication consists of a earth station and a satellite at a stationary orbit, which is about 22300 miles above the earth surface. Earth station sends the data through waves to satellite and then it is accepted by satellite and amplified, then it is send to another earth station, where it is captured by the receiver.
What is Baud Rate?
The baud rate is defined as the rate at which serial information is transmitted and is equivalent to data transfer in bits per second.
What is Direct Memory Access?
The DMA controller is a device that facilitates data between memory and I/O device directly without the interrupt of CPU.
What is Strobe?
Strobe is a pulse signal supplied by one unit to another unit to indicate the time at which data is being transmitted.
What is Peer-to-Peer Network?
A Peer-to-Peer network has no dedicated servers. This network is ideal for small networks, like home network, small business establishments or shops. In this a number of workstations are connected together for the purpose of sharing information or devices.
How many types of Network?
There are mainly three types of Network -
1. LAN (Local Area Network)
2. MAN (Metropolitan Area Network)
3. WAN (Wide Area Network)

Define Metropolitan Area network?
A Metropolitan Area Network is a large computer network that usually spans a city or a large campus. A network spanning a physical area larger than a LAN but smaller than a WAN.
Define Wide Area Network?
A Wide Area Network is a Computer Network that covers a large geographic area such as state, province or country. A WAN often connect multiple smaller networks, such as LANs or MANs.
How many types of Network Topologies?
There are six types of network topologies -
1. Bus Topology
2. Star Topology
3. Mesh Topology
4. Ring Topology
5. Hybrid Topology
6. Wireless Topolpgy
What are the disadvantages of Bus Topology?
These are the disadvantages of Bus Topology -
1. Entire network shuts down, if there is a break in the main cable.
2. Terminators are required at both ends of the backbone cable.
3. Difficult to identify the problems, if the entire network shuts down.
4. Not meant to be used as a stand alone solution.
Define Ring Topology?
In a ring topology, all computers are connected via a cable that loops in a ring or circle. A ring topology is a circle that has no start and no end and terminations are not necessary in a ring topology. Signals travel in one direction on a ring.
What is Star Topology?
A star topology is designed with each node connected directly to a central network hub/switch. Each workstation has a cable that goes from the network card to the network hub or switch.

What are the disadvantages of Star Topology?
These are the disadvantages of Star Topology -
1. Requires more cable length than a linear topology.
2. If the hub fails, nodes attached are disabled.
3. More expensive than linear bus topologies because of the cost of the devices.
What is Modem?
A modem converts the digital data from the computer into a continuous analogue wave from that the telephone system is designed to deal with Modulator. The modem also converts the analogue signal from the telephone network back into digital data that the computer can understand.
What is Router?
Router is a hardware device which is designed to take incoming packets, analyze the packets, moving the packets to another network interface, dropping the packets, directing packets to the appropriates locations etc.
What is OSI Model?
The OSI Model is based on the proposal developed by the ISO. Thus the model is called the ISO OSI because it deals with the open systems, which are open for the communication with other systems.
What are the seven types of OSI layer?
These are the seven types of OSI layer -
Physical -> Data Link -> Network -> Transport -> Session -> Presentation -> Application
What are the protocols used by Transport Layer?
Protocols Used by Transport Layer - TCP, UDP, DCCP, SCTP, RSVP, ECN
What are the functions of Network Layer?
These are the functions of Network Layer -
1. Provide service to transport layer
2. Internal design of subnet
3. Routing of packets
4. Congestion control
5. Fragementation
What are the protocols used by Network Layer?
The protocols used by Network Layers are -

What is the role of Application Layer?
The Application Layer contains data that will be used by user. Application Layers enables the user, whether human or software, to access the network. It provides user interface and support for services such as electronic mail, remoter file access and transfer, access to the world wide web and so on.
What are the Protocols used by Application Layers?
The protocols used by application layers are -
Define IP address?
An Internet Protocol address is a usually numerical label assigned to each device participating in a computer network that uses the IP for communication.
Define Ethernet?
An ethernet LAN consists of a singal coaxial cable called Ether. It operates at 10 Mbps and provides a 48 bits address. Fast ethernet operates at 100 Mbps or 1 Gbps.
What is the difference between digital signals and analog signals?
In digital signals, data is transmitted in the electronic form of data i.e. binary digits (0 or 1) and in analog signals, data is transmitted in the form of radio waves like in telephone line.
What is hybrid signal?
Hybrid signal have properties of both analog and digital signals.
What is backbone network?
A backbone network is centralized core network that interconnected different networks and provide a path for the exchange of information between these networks.
What is FTP?
FTP stands for File Transfer Protocol. It is a commonly used protocol for exchanging files over any network that supports the TCP/IP protocol.
What is Intranet?
An Intranet is a private network that is contained within an enterprise. It may consist of many interlinked LANs.
What is VPN?
VPN stands for Virtual Private Network. VPN allows secure and private connection across a public networks. VPN is used in corporate offices to protect sensitive data.
What are MAC addresses?

MAC stands for Media Access Control. It is a unique identifier assigned to network interfaces to communicate over data link layer. MAC address are 6 byte in length.
What are IP spoofing?
IP Spoofing or IP address forgery is a creation of IP packets with a false source IP address which looks like it is authentic and impersonate another computer system.
What are the functions of Transport Layer?
These are the functions of Transport Layer -
a). End-to-end reliable connection oriented byte stream.
b). Connection Establishment.
What are NIC?
NIC stands for Network Interface Card. It is a computer hardware component that connects a computer to a computer network. It provides a physical access to a networking medium.
In which layer of the OSI model the repeaters functions?
The repeater functions in the physical layer of OSI model.
How does a symmetric cryptography work?
Symmetric cryptography uses a single private key to encrypt and decrypt data. So the sender and receiver have same key to encrypt and decrypt the message.
What is Snooping?
Snooping is unauthorised access to another person's data or emails etc. Snooping may include monitoring and tracing of keystrokes pressed, capturing password and login information etc.
What is ipconfig?
ipconfig is a command of Microsoft Windows, that allows us to get the IP address of window computer.
What is 3G networks?
3G is the third generation of mobile phone standards and technology. 3G Networks enable network operators to offer users a wider range of more advanced services. Services include wide area wireless voice telephony, video calls, and broadband wireless data, all in a mobile environment.
Define some advantages of Ethernet Cable?
There are the advantages of Ethernet Cable -
1. Simple in structure
2. Physically Flexible
3. Can be easily connected
4. Has low weight and cost

What is Bluetooth?
Bluetooth is used for exchanging data over a short distance from fixed and mobile devices using UHF radio waves in the ISM bands, from 2.402 GHz to 2.48 GHz, and building personal area networks. Using this, we are able to share data without disclosing our private data.
What is the full form of URL?
The full form of URL is Uniform Resource Locator.
What is the full form of URL?
The full form of URL is Uniform Resource Locator.
What is Cryptography?
Cryptography is a science of converting a stream of text into coded form in such a way that only the sender and receiver of the coded text can decode the text. It plays a very important role in internet based commercial activites like payment details, money transfer and other confidential information are to be transferred from one computer to another computer.
What is the difference between Hub, Switch?
Hub is a common connection point for devices connected to the network. It broadcast all data to every port which may cause serious security and reliability concern.
Switch is a device in a network which forwards packets in a network. It creates connections dynamically and provides information only to the requesting port
What is HTTP?
HTTP stands for Hypertext Transfer Protocol. HTTP was initiated by Tim Berners-Lee at CERN in 1989. This allows two nodes to communicate with each other. The HTTP communicates between two entities: sender and receiver.
What does the 502 error code mean?
The 502 Bad Gateway error is an HTTP status code that means that one server on the internet received an invalid response from another server.
What is SNMP?
Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is an Internet Standard protocol for collecting and organizing information about managed devices on IP networks and for modifying that information to change device behaviour.

What is SNMP?
Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is an Internet Standard protocol for collecting and organizing information about managed devices on IP networks and for modifying that information to change device behaviour.
What is video conferencing?
A service that allows a group of users to exchange video information over the Internet. It include an audio teleconference facility.
What is POP3?
The POP3(Post Office Protocol) is used to read messages from the IPS's message transfer agent.
What is WWW?
The World Wide Web, commonly known as the Web, is an information system where documents and other web resources are identified by Uniform Resource Locators, which may be interlinked by hyperlinks, and are accessible over the Internet.
What is proxy server?
A proxy server is a computer that offers a computer network service to allow clients to make indirect network connections to other network services. A proxy server can also serve as a firewall.
What is the highest radio frequency?
Extremely high frequency (EHF) is the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) designation for the band of radio frequencies in the electromagnetic spectrum from 30 to 300 gigahertz (GHz).

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